A term used more and more in art education, which refers to what we have otherwise called art, but it is more inclusive and less likely to rely upon value judgments. Visual culture includes imagery in all kinds of media, in electronic games, in sports, cosmetics (and other fashion-related settings), comic books, politics, in imagery associated with holidays and terrorism. It can be said to include all or nearly all of what people experience visually. Certain works that a Eurocentric audience might call art, but are not called art by the cultures that produced them can be included in discussions of visual culture, yet they may not have been included in discussions of art. Examples of such work might include kachina dolls, bonsai, and boomerangs. A related term (some would say a synonym) is material culture. Proponents often assert that the study of visual culture promotes visuality and reflexivity and empowers students concerning social issues.Quote: In the field of art education, visual culture is "a range of all material objects in the environment and has expanded to the performance and virtual images. The aim is to provide students with a set of critical tools for the investigation of human visuality, not to transmit a specific body of information or values.? Paul Duncum, and T. Bracey, (Eds.). (2001). On knowing: Art and visual culture. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press: University of Canterbury, p. 210.Also see intertextuality.