Tempera

DEFINITION

A powdered pigment painting medium in which the binder is usually egg yolk or gum so that an emulsion is created that is suspended in water. Tempera paint dates to the ancient Greeks and Romans and possibly earlier. Egg tempera is documented from the 12th century in Medieval Europe. It was the medium for easel and panel painting until the 15th century when oil painting was developed. Fra Angelico and Sandro Botticelli in Italy and Rogier Van der Weyden and Jan Van Eyck in Holland are famous artists who did Tempera painting. In the 20th century, Tempera painting has had a revival, especially among artists who have suffered reactions to the chemicals of oil paints. A key person in the revival was Daniel V. Thompson, Technical Adviser of The Courtauld Institute of Art in London, who wrote a book in 1936, "The Practice of Tempera Painting." In addition to being non-toxic, desirability of Tempera is quick drying, durability and water-resistance when dried. Also dry tempera has a matte-like surface that an artist can polish to a high gloss with a soft cloth. Panel is the traditional support or ground, although paper is occasionally used. American artists associated with Tempera painting include Peter Hurd, Andrew Wyeth, Grandma Moses, Reginald Marsh, Jacob Lawrence, Isabel Bishop and Charles DeMuth. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; www.noteaccess.com/Texts/Thompson/index.htmAskART database <br><br>Technique of painting in which water and egg yolk or whole egg and oil mixture form the binder for the paint. Used also as a term for cheap opaque paints used in schools.<br><br>Pigments mixed with egg yolk and water. Also, a student-grade liquid gouache.

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