Science and art
Science is the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena (both man-made and natural. Scientific activities involve a large amount of study and methodology) as when using the "scientific method." The principal sciences are: mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, physics, geology, biology, botany, zoology, archaeology, engineering, medicine, and psychology.The academic disciplines in any school's curriculum are usually divided into the arts and the sciences. Sometimes this division is framed as the humanities and the sciences, or the arts and humanities are together often placed opposite the sciences. Each of these largely excludes the other from its arena. This is necessary for the organization of the entire field of academic disciplines. There is no instance, however, in which either one is entirely separate from the other. Everything has both artistic and scientific qualities. Any effort to separate them entirely is utterly misguided. Historically, the arts have many interdisciplinary connections to the sciences. There have been an increasing number of them ever since the arrival of postmodernism.Quote: "Those who fall in love with practice without science are like a sailor who enters a ship without a helm or a compass, and who never can be certain whither he is going . . . ." Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Italian artist. See Renaissance. "Art upsets, science reassures." Georges Braques (1882-1963), French painter, in his Pens?es de l'Art. See Cubism. "Art is science made clear." Jean Cocteau (1889-1963), French artist. "Objectivity is of the essense of science, just as subjectivity is of the essence of art." Mario Bunge (1919-), Argentinian philosopher. Finding Philosophy in Social Science, 1996, p. 326. New Haven: Yale University Press. See objectivity and subjectivity. "... in the case of every historic scientific discovery which was researched carefully enough, we find it was imagery, either in dreams or in a waking state, which produced the breakthrough." J.C. Gowan (contemporary) American scientist, quoted by John-Steiner, Notebooks of the Mind, 1985, University of New Mexico Press, p. 87. Related links: Science Timeline. Chronology of Scientific Developments. History of Science and Technlogy Timeline.Also see action research, anatomy, angstrom, architecture, art therapy, ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials), Bloom's Taxonomy, bone structure, cartography, change, cognitive, dimension, empirical, empiricism, epistemology, ergonomics, horology, hygroscopic, hygrothermograph, kinesiologist, map, measurement, metallurgy, metamorphosis, Mohs Scale of Hardness, multiple intelligence theory, mystery, ontology, ophthalmology, optics, optical illusion, optical mixing, perception, periodicity, phenomenology, photography, Renaissance, research, sight, space-time, standards, stereometry, technology, temperature, theory, time, typology, and weight.