Refus global

DEFINITION

"Refus Global" was an artistic, political, religious and social manifesto, the principal essay of which was written by Paul-??mile Borduas and signed by 15 members of Les Automatistes group. It included texts by Bruno Cormier, Claude Gauvreau, Fernand Leduc and Fran??oise Sullivan and illustrations of works by members of the group. It was launched at the Librairie Tranquille in Montr??al on August 9, 1948 in a first edition of 400 copies at $1.00 each (in 2009 first editions sell at auction for $5,000.00). Refus Global not only challenged the traditional values of Qu??bec but, also fostered an opening-up of Qu??bec society to international thought and artistic freedom. It is considered by many to be the most important and controversial artistic document in Canada. The signatories were artists and intellectuals, in addition to Borduas, they were Jean-Paul Riopelle, Fernand Leduc, Fran??oise Sullivan, Marcel Barbeau, Pierre Gauvreau, Marcelle Ferron, Jean-Paul Mousseau (see all previous in AskART), Madeleine Arbour, Bruno Cormier, Claude Gauvreau, Muriel Guilbault, Th??r??se Leduc, Maurice Perron, Louise Renaud and Fran??oise Riopelle. Sources: Francois-Marc Gagnon in ???The Canadian Encyclopedia??? (1985), Hurtig Publishers Ltd.; ???A Concise History of Canadian Painting??? (1973), by Dennis Reid; and "Documents in Canadian Art" (1987), edited by Douglas Fetherling (see AskArt book references). Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, Canada

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