Principles of design


Certain qualities inherent in the choice and arrangement of elements of art in the production of a work of art. Artists "design" their works to varying degrees by controlling and ordering the elements of art. Considering the principles is especially useful in analyzing ways in which a work is pleasing in formal ways. How any work exhibits applications of these principles can further or modify other characteristics of a work as well.Some principles overlap or oppose others, and some are viewed as more important, more ideal, more relevant or irrelevant (or even undesirable) than others. So it is understandable that various authorities' lists of principles differ one from another. Several authorities do not include the concepts marked here with an asterisk (*). The primary reason for this variation appears to be disagreement about whether principles are ideals (concepts found in the best designs / art) or design issues we benefit from understanding and considering in order to more thoughtfully produce, understand, and judge art and design. The trend is toward the second point of view. After all, there are needs for both the beautiful and the grotesque, the polished and the rough, and exceptions to many rules.See articles about each of the principles of design / art: balance (the several kinds: symmetry, asymmetry, and radial) emphasis (largely synonymous with dominance) eurythmy * (a combination of harmony, proportion, and movement) harmony * (compare to unity, tension, and variety) horror vacui * (in contrast to limitation, and emphasis or dominance, the principle most often cited as undesirable) limitation * (in contrast to horror vacui, and emphasis or dominance) movement pattern (often paired with rhythm) proportion rhythm (often paired with pattern) tension * (compare to unity, harmony, and variety) unity (largely synonymous with coherence and homogeneity) variety (often contrasted with unity) Also see allover, decoration, expression, interesting, and music.