A device for copying a two-dimensional figure to a desired scale, consisting of styluses for tracing and copying mounted on four jointed arms in the form of a parallelogram with extended sides. Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452-1519) used one. Pantographs are based on the simple principle of the parallelogram in Euclidean geometry understood 2300 years ago. The artist moves a pointer attached to one part of the pantograph along the outline of the original image, and a pencil attached to another part copies the image at either the same size, larger or smaller. The placement of the pointer and pencil determines the overall scale.The one Thomas Jefferson (American, 1743-1826) devised and used to copy letters as he wrote them can be seen at his Monticello home. Such tools have been made largely obsolete by photographic and other technologies, but are great for studying scale.Examples:American, Sorenson&#39;s Engraving Pantograph, an engraving of one in use by the U.S. Coastal Survey, published as Fig. No. 27, Report of Superintendent, 1867, Historic C&GS Collection, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Central Library, Washington, DC.An easily improvised pantograph. Cut narrow strips of cardboard or of wood using the dimensions in this diagram. It&#39;s okay to make your dimensions different from these if you&#39;d like to see how to modify the scale of your copyies. If you experiment with various changes in these measurements you&#39;ll learn more about how to alter the scale. You&#39;ll also need four push-pins, a pencil, a screw, a nail, a small block of wood, and some adhesive tape.See caliper, drawing, pantograph, pointing and pointing machine, and proportion.<br><br>A device for copying a two-dimensional figure to a desired scale, consisting of styluses for tracing and copying mounted on four jointed arms in the form of a parallelogram with extended sides. Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452-1519) used one. Pantographs are based on the simple principle of the parallelogram in Euclidean geometry understood 2300 years ago. The artist moves a pointer attached to one part of the pantograph along the outline of the original image, and a pencil attached to another part copies the image at either the same size, larger or smaller. The placement of the pointer and pencil determines the overall scale.The one Thomas Jefferson (American, 1743-1826) devised and used to copy letters as he wrote them can be seen at his Monticello home. Such tools have been made largely obsolete by photographic and other technologies, but are great for studying scale.

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