In art, a public declaration or exposition in print of the theories and directions of a movement which invariably challenges the status quo. Manifestos related to art are credited to William Blake, English visionary artist, who mounted painted prints in a London hosiery shop to encourage public patronage of art, something that he believed was being ignored. In 1855, Gustave Courbet challenged academic authorities with a manifesto exhibition of paintings counter to Salon rules. In the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries, manifestos issued by artists are a familiar method including assertions by futurists, expressionists, and dadaists such as Man Ray. Source: Robert Atkins, "ARTSPEAK"<br><br>A public declaration of principles, policies, or intentions. Although usually of a political nature, there is a history in art, especially in modernism during the first half of the twentieth century, of the spokesmen of various avant-garde movements publishing manifestos which declare their theories, motivations and direction, stimulating support for them or reactions against them. These movements have included Futurism, Rayonism, and Surrealism. To see an important example, read The First Surrealist Manifesto, 1924. (There is also a PDF version that&#39;s better for printing.)