Gem and gemstone
A precious or semiprecious stone of any kind, especially when cut and polished for ornaments. A jewel.Examples:Timurid, Talisman of the Throne, 249 carats, carved ruby, collection of Kuwaiti Prince Sheikh Nasser Sabah al-Ahmed al-Sabah. It was presented to India's Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1621 by the Shah of Iran. It bears several royal inscriptions, the earliest being that of the Timurid ruler, Ulugh Beg, who ruled from 1447-1449. See talisman.