The study and practice of map making, it is built "on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively." (Wikipedia) The earliest map is thought to be a wall painting from 700 B.C. depicting the ancient Anatolian city of Catalhoyuk. Among American artists who did frontier mapmaking are Sanford Gifford, William Bradford, Albert Bierstadt, Ralph Blakelock, Thomas Cole, Martin Heade, and Fitz Hugh Lane. Sources: Wikipedia; AskART biographies