American society for testing and materials
See ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials).<br><br>ASTM International is a voluntary standards development organization ? a source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services, in the areas of design, manufacturing and trade.ASTM International, originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), was formed in 1898, when a group of engineers and scientists got together to address frequent rail brakes in the railroad industry. Their work led to standardization on the steel used in rail construction, ultimately improving railroad safety.Since then, ASTM has played a leading role in addressing the standardization needs around the world, making products and services safer, better and more cost-effective. Standards developed at ASTM are the work of over 30,000 ASTM members, technical experts representing producers, users, consumers, government and academia from over 100 countries. Their mark is often found on art materials and equipment. ASTM has set standards on color and appearance measurement. For more information about this organization and its standards, visit the Web site of ASTM International.Many manufactured art and craft materials carry a label stating "Conforms to ASTM D-4236" indicates that the product conforms to the labeling standards of the Hazardous Art Materials Act (HAMA), which was signed into US law on November 18, 1988. If the product is non-toxic, then no warning needs to be included on the label. However, if the product is found to carry acute or chronic health hazards, the information on the label must alert the consumer to those hazards. The part of this law which is of greatest importance here is the Labeling of Hazardous Art Materials Act (LHAMA). The law requires art material labels to (a) carry a warning statement identifying chronic health hazards, (b) list the ingredients causing those hazards, and (c) provide directions for safe use of the product. The phrase, "Conforms to ASTM D 4236", is required as evidence that the guidelines of the standard were followed in the labeling of the product. The evaluation is to be conducted by a board-certified toxicologist, and the product must be reevaluated periodically, at least every five years. Another key piece of information to be found on the label, as directed by the standard, is a source for additional information. This can take the form of a toll free phone number that is reachable 24 hours per day, or directions to contact a poison control center network. Under the Labeling of Hazardous Art Materials Act, it became a requirement for chronically hazardous products to carry the phone number of a person responsible for placing the product on the market. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is the US's federal agency charged with enforcing HAMA.Also see AP, Art & Creative Materials Institute (ACMI), caustic, CL, ergonomics, flammable, fumigation, hazardous, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), poison, safety, science and art, toxic, and volatile.